Project presentation 2013
Project presentation 2009

Njål Sparbo

FOTO: © Bente Elisabeth Finserås

The Norwegian Artistic Research Fellowship Programme is parallel to other research educations organised as academic PhD programmes. The programme intends to secure high level artistic research and leads to expertise as Associate Professor. The Artistic Research Fellowships Programme is among the first in this field in Europe. The programme offers a three-year position as Research Fellow to candidates who have completed the highest art education within their subject area. The Fellow must be associated with one of the Norwegian institutions offering one or more creative and/or performing art educations. At the same time Fellows will participate in an interdisciplinary professional community which may differ from their own artistic position and specialisation. The Programme is coordinated by Bergen Academy of Art and Design.

A Reflection - by Njål Sparbo


A psychophysical approach

This entire five-year fellowship project can be seen as a singer's quest to achieve greater genuinely artistic expression through the discovery and realization of his own untapped resources. The goal has been to revitalize myself as an artist through the development of artistic expression that lay just beyond my reach, at the meeting point of my capability and my incapability. I thought that an approach that made it possible to combine mental, emotional and physical aspects into a single functional unit could be rewarding, and I have called this a psychophysical approach. I believed that some of my limitations were caused by my habits and prejudices, and by my self-image based on my personal stage experience, and that some limiting factors lay in the operatic tradition and in the singing training I had received. I thought that these factors could lead me to discover which artistic impulses were being inhibited, and I wished to examine whether working within a broader, more holistic psychophysical setting would lead to greater artistic freedom and greater flexibility in terms of singing on stage.

Personal blind spots

All serious singers work on their limitations, but general training or further education on issues that I myself was aware of, was not part of this project. My goal was to discover the limitations or obstacles that I did not even see, and that were, in other words, in my blind spots.

They consist mainly of:

Academic blind spots

Some artistic limitations are rooted in my pride and my relationship to the classical singing tradition, where the expectations of performers and the audience have influenced and restricted my freedom. The relationship between good diction and good sound, between musical complexity and the extent to which something is singable, or the degree of vibrato permitted are examples of academic topics that have artistic consequences. In the singing tradition there are also numerous guidelines regarding the degree of emotional involvement, which preferred gestures to use and the suitability of certain kinds of body language for operas, oratorios, romances, songs or freer performances such as the encore.

Choices are being made whether I am aware of it or not, and an inter-disciplinary approach to these choices - where professionals from different fields have posed critical questions - has provided important insights. In particular I discovered that some themes that I had attributed to classical singing tradition had their basis in psychophysical issues. Further investigation made me realize that other options were available to me.

An example is that I can feel naked and exposed when I sing, because my voice timbre reveals much more than I am comfortable to share with an audience. In order to protect my privacy and self-image I can add a special timbre to the sound, so that it becomes more instrumental, and, in a sense, unassailable. I had believed that this was merely a classical sound quality, but it was often perceived as being artificial.
Another example is that song floats on air, and that control of the air flow is essential for its tonal quality. But controlling air flow also causes a psychophysical rigidity which can have significant consequences when on stage.

"The Singer Bubble"

For maximum control - over myself, the sound and the whole situation - it is tempting to go into a concentrated, almost meditative state where everything of importance takes place in an auditory reality. To ensure the quality of the artistic product implies controlling the message and the meaning. These control mechanisms make it tempting to go into a kind of performing mode - which I will hereafter refer to as ”the singer bubble”.

Comment: Not only when I practice, but also during performance it happens that I myself and some of the listeners are drawn into the singer bubble, where the tone magically flows through time and space - and that the words, the logos, or the actual meaning, acquires an almost metaphysical state. That longing for the bel canto sublime acoustic art of singing at the absolutely highest level is an important driving force in the art of singing, but it also leads to artistic blind spots when on stage.

Vocal or scenic art?

Psychophysical fluctuations and stage presence require a lot of energy. This has significant consequences for the art of singing, which demands that large resources of energy are devoted to the flow of air:

The psychophysical approach to being on stage went far beyond vocal musical phrasing and concentration, and the trade-off between genuine stage expression and good singing technique is an important and problematic issue. During this research work I collided quickly with what I perceived as traditional singing training, and the artistic result will therefore probably be seen as a critique of the classical singing tradition.

A psychophysical process

Obstacles in our blind spots are usually non-detectable and difficult to do anything about. Professional observation from the outside is required, and feedback must be dealt with systematically over time. Working with blind spots is a comprehensive process that could lead to a significant destabilization of values ​​and habits, and I assumed that such a process could also be disruptive. I had, however, a safe, stable personal and professional network and felt that this was a good point of departure. When I now look back on the process, the following points are important to mention:

My purpose was to investigate whether a psychophysical revitalization process would lead to:

In order to detect and adapt the obstacles in my blind spots, my plan was to repeat certain processes six times during this study, each time with an emphasis on key scenic themes. The six processes consisted of:

The central question in the project revolved around whether a psychophysical approach would lead to new artistic approach, new working methods and different artistic expressions.Throughout the research the psychophysical approach was to permeate the work of:

Artistic Results

The artistic results were highlighted during a final performance on the main stage at the Academy of the Arts in Oslo on 26th and 29th March 2014. Four works from the research material had been further developed, and the presentation revolved around specific artistic themes in the project:

The artistic results were accepted but left many questions. I am happy about both of these aspects.

The research project

This project is in reality not a linear process, and the various factors easily became mixed up en route, causing misunderstandings and doubt. Midway through the project I had a fall on stage during rehearsal, and a long period of sick leave led to changes in the whole schedule. The project description, however, was an important structuring tool, and although the processing of certain themes spanned several years, I was able to use the six main topics to focus on different aspects of singing on stage. Directing, interpretation, timing, visuality, attention, abstraction, concept, staging, mentality, presence, movement and space were the key points, and I was working with instructors with experience in a number of different fields. The key question on the psychophysical approach was central to all of the work, and instructors and resource groups helped to discover probable themes in my blind spots, which I then subsequently worked on. The presentations were designed to expose unresolved issues, so that the ensuing dialogue would be more rewarding. I made increasingly "bad choices" in attempting to increase the pace and temperature. Parallel with my research work, I practiced various psycho-physical exercises, and attended courses, workshops and performances.

A psychophysical strategy of understanding

I thought that a clear strategy for understanding psychophysical phenomena would be helpful for the performing arts, because it ties together psychological, aesthetic and physical intentions and actions, and because it is consistent with how the audience - consciously or unconsciously - reads what's happening on stage.


Intention and action are two sides of the same coin, and they interrelate:

Both of these fields can be recognized on stage, and where these currents meet the subjective driving force becomes visible. The subjectivity or, if you like, personal bias is highly relevant to all researchers, and should be as transparent as possible. A scientific researcher makes subjectivity transparent in an attempt to eliminate it, and thereby achieve the greatest possible degree of objectivity and credibility. As a performing artist, however, I can use subjectivity as an energy resource. Subjectivity is an important key to understanding artistic choices, and these choices will be read with great interest by the audience. The artistic choices are, in my opinion what makes a singer an artist, and the same choices touch the underlying question of any audience: "What is the artistic message?" And "What is the singer's attitude?" Complex issues can easily become one-dimensional when formulated verbally, and thereby block the creative process. Many artists therefore avoid verbal formulations, and focus instead on the work itself, where the strategy of grasping and that which is to be grasped are one and the same.

The artistic choices are made psychophysically by the audience and must therefore be prepared and presented psychophysically. My task as performer is to go as thoroughly into the work as possible, find meaningful themes and communicate them. It is a subjective process, and many performers work almost purely within this sphere, leaving the objective part to the director and scenographer. Once the performer begins to involve himself in the work, new answers appear, and then new questions in the light of those answers. The artistic process is circular and unstoppable, and it takes place on a living, psychophysical plane.

In academic terms, it is preferable that the questions are formulated outside of the artistic context, in the form of reflections that can be shared with peers and included in an academic discourse. In working with teachers and colleagues, it is important to discuss topics with the necessary degree of precision, and it is essential to find suitable terminology. New terminology often develops as a result of artistic collaboration processes, and every production has, in a sense, its own terminology, references and associations that relate to the joint experience, the stories and conversations during the rehearsal period.

Artistic reflection and artistic activities

The artistic research programme seems to be founded on the conviction that the alternation between reflection and artistic activities is beneficial, and that it leads to new or deeper insights into art, and as a result to better art. Many people have attempted to define the difference between art and artistic research, but there are major differences in points of view particularly between the design and performing communities. The pragmatic answer is that it is the result that counts:


The format of the reflection is also open to discussion and the programme accepts in principle that the critical reflection – which is a compulsory part of the project -  does not necessarily have to be in a written format. I considered for a period performing the critical reflection through singing on stage, but it was pointed out that a performance would not be regarded as valid as an academic reflection: It would not have the necessary degree of precision. This question could also be inverted: Can in fact a critical reflection of stage performance be verbal?

A critique of "critical reflection"

In working with singing and the performing arts, I do not get far by solely using a verbal, analytic approach, and it is quite obvious that tacit or experiential knowledge also has to be included in the reflection if it should be satisfactory. Work on singing and performing art involve several forms of bodily awareness and a true critical reflection presupposes therefore, in my opinion, that a wide range of perspectives are represented simultaneously. This is impossible for me to do merely from my writing desk.


Some perspectives that I think are particularly relevant for working with, revitalising and communicating the performing arts are:

These seven perspectives are not limited to themselves. They are all part of a large dynamic psychophysical knowledge network, where the combined forces of intention and action provide an important and persistent variable. In this reflection there is at all times an emphasis on what is of interest, the flow and the counter flow – intention, action, listening and reflecting - in life itself. This approach to critical reflection can remind one of a rehearsal.

Active intuition - a radical psychophysical reflection

Intuition, as I define it, entails an active and intentional use of the entire network, while passive inspiration comes from that same network, usually like a backwash, after finally letting go. When this network reacts to and against itself, this is a radical psychophysical reflection, and this proved to be a necessary condition for a recognition of blind spots, and such recognitions were always radical. They shook the entire network, and could be very difficult to handle. If the processing of blind spots is on the agenda, it involves something much more than an ordinary rehearsal.

Balancing opposing forces

Psychophysical barriers balance each other. Greatly simplified, I could put it like this -  a passive, weak movement is contrasted by an over active, strong movement. This means that an activising somewhere, demands a pacifying or a form of resignation in the opposite corner, like dynamic, interactive breathing i.e. active intuition is countered by passive inspiration. In other words a psychophysical reaction consists of a double process, and it will not happen without a new balancing of the mutually antagonistic forces at work.
The activation process requires therefore that I accept the role of resignation, and this can sometimes be perceived as a form of loss. When I let go of my expectations, both my will power and my self-image are diminished in strength. Allowing the weak - the open and receptive - can be difficult in professional situations, and all artists are familiar with that internal resistance when artistic processes require psychophysical adaptation. Performers relate also naturally to their clients' and the audience's demands that we should be exceptionally competent, and this leads us at times to steel ourselves and try to make ourselves as invincible as possible. This prevents receptiveness, and rigid or over active aspects are left standing in the way and block each other: we are too inflexible, and art is not allowed to flow naturally.

Intuition and inspiration in real time

In logical terms the interaction between intention and action - or between intuition and inspiration – can be represented as a circular process or a figure of eight, in continual flow => intuition => choice => intention => action => proprioception => inspiration => reflection => consideration => recognition => intuition => choice => intention => action => etc..


I continued work on a model that I had based on Stanislavski’s work, switching from intellectual understanding to bodily understanding. I thought it could represent a psychophysical reflection on the one hand and a psychophysical action on the other. But it is not an either-or situation. As a performer on stage I found that this does not happen in a rhythmical alternating fashion or as a linear process, but as a state of psychophysicality: everything is happening simultaneously - in real time.

Comment: Verbal reflections or instructions relate to moments that have passed, or to moments that may come. On stage there are reflections in real time – i.e. the psycho- physical presence - which is relevant, and it does not help to talk about it if you are not at some point actually there doing it. When something works on stage, it cannot be described with words. It must be experienced.

Processing of blind spots

Obstacles contained in our blind spots can best be worked on when one’s psychophysical presence is approached critically. The process involves experimenting with different modes of being, and goes considerably deeper than learning an ordinary role. The same processes are used in certain forms of therapy, but even if the intention then is to aid recovery, the change potential is the same.

Comment: When the same approach is used in the artistic field, this could lead to an understanding of ways of being, an existential flexibility, where we are also able to master the process backwards, i.e. by giving myself negative frustrations that I initially did not have. I imagine that some of the best artists use such techniques, and it is perceived as genuine and credible because it actually takes place. It's not a game; It is a psychophysical reality.

Psychophysical exercises in the wings before a show did not have the same benefits. It was essential that the process took place in the right situation, i.e. on stage, while singing and acting, and it was a definite advantage that an audience was present, because the public's focus adds meaning and gives a sense of presence, but I had to be flexible, open and honest. Artistic reflection is related to the recognition of truth. 

Levels of Consciousness  - proprioceptive presence

Working on presence requires different levels of consciousness. A purely cognitive approach may easily lack ambiguity and many artists find that logical analysis leads to somewhat banal dichotomies. A clear understanding requires a very stringent, physically active presence (perception and proprioception), and that happens more easily when the need for analysis is reduced. Psychophysical phenomena of an existential nature could therefore best be processed by a heightened level of bodily awareness. The important question for me was whether I had confidence that my body could actually reflect and be aware on stage without a strong cognitive direction. Every performing artist knows what it means to be in the way of oneself.

The audience often feels great satisfaction in their own ability to understand psychophysically, and they recognise what they perceive as the unconscious, the authentic or genuine. This then provides an all pervasive context for their scenic focus. It also means that artists must work on certain subjects, knowing that they will be interpreted at an unconscious level.

If that which is experienced unconsciously does not fit with what is in direct focus, a sense of disbelief can be experienced, almost a feeling of having been tricked  - which can at times be intentional as a subtext - but could just as easily be a blind spot in the performer.

This can be schematically depicted as a pyramid; at the bottom the unconscious body language and posture is depicted. Above this level the unconscious mental or emotional attitude. Next up – and now in the conscious area - comes conscious body language (actions, movements and gestures), and at the top of the pyramid, and always in focus, logical sense - intentions expressed through words, agogics and phrasing.

The interesting thing about working with presence and different levels of consciousness, is that personal issues become conscious, and this is a side effect that can both prevent or trigger artistic processes. Some of the obstacles in our blind spots are extremely demanding, but they are often full of subjective power, and can provide important impulses which could lead to a radical changes in posture. This touches the core of the research project, and it gives a singer meaningful challenges on stage.

The road to the unconscious

How can these insights be integrated into practical stage work? For the actor Stanislavski’s conscious path to the unconscious can be a viable alternative. Important to note is that Stanislavski did not define "the unconscious" as something Freudian which is suppressed from consciousness, but as a rich and important part of ourselves that we are not aware of but which can give us access to our fantasies, our forebodings or dreams. Stanislavski’s method is not about a struggle with traumas, but is a benign psychophysical recognition process that can initiate creativity.

The Stanislavski method

During this research fellowship project I had the opportunity of working together with Hans Henriksen, professor in directing at the Academy. Stanislavski’s ideas and methodological exercises have an important role to play in his work. I also worked with Tyra Tønnessen, who had just completed her fellowship project on Stanislavski’s improvisation methods. Stanislavski's intention was to crystallize the essence of the artistic material (a literary text) through methodical cognitive activity (method acting analysis), and using improvisation (the method of physical actions) for physically facilitating the selection of the analysis. The idea was to switch between reflecting upon and executing activities, with a natural scenic artistic expression as a result.

It is about fine-tuning one’s intentions (or the character's) in an often problematic theatrical setting, and in believing fully in both the psychophysical intentions and the resistance resulting from the setting. Our emotional reactions would then be a result of - and not a trigger for - what was happening on stage. For me some of the artistic focus had now shifted towards directing, and I felt a greater confidence that what was actually happening on stage was helping to entertain the audience, tell the story and expose the artistic content of the presentation. It was not just a question of the performer’s energy.

The Stanislavski method requires years of training in the psychophysical approach, but even though I only worked on it for a few years, I still profited greatly from the training and this work led to many important changes of attitude. Being seen provides a focus from the outside (from the audience), and it affects self-image and self-experience during the performance. I was used to getting attention as a singer, but being in focus as an actor I experienced as something entirely different.

For singers without a microphone intra-abdominal pressure is significant, but for an actor this appears unnatural. Modern actors often use microphones in the theatre to avoid the somewhat artificial effect characterized by the use of a powerful voice. The energy comes from the head and chest, and the ideal is for these muscles to be naturally relaxed - which is not easily achieved when singing.

In this connection I worked with Kim Haugen, one of the National Theatre's foremost actors. He was keen to get me out of the singer mode. The “singer bubble” is in many ways technical and introverted and the energy flow tends to follow the phrasing of the music. This leads to the singing technique being involuntarily exposed. The energy flow easily runs over the content of the text, the timing being bound by muscular activity. For the actor this appears rather like a vulgar art illustration, and is known as Mickey-Mousing, because the actor’s actions are related to the timing of the various ideas expressed which in practice are in the future. As a singer, it is easy to overlook this and face this uncomfortable blind spot by using the only effective protection strategy: keep oneself inside the “singer bubble”. The “singer bubble” invites anyone in who wants to enter, and a song versed audience is happy to do so - but everyone else is outside, and they are wondering quite what is happening. What exactly is the singer doing? As a final point in the presentation, we made a joke of this; Grieg’s  ‘By Rondane’ was performed in a state of great panic when troublesome stage circumstances constantly tore the singer out of his bubble.

In an exploration of the theme mentality and presence, I worked with director Hans Henriksen. Our task was to remove everything "unnecessary or artificial", but we had considerable difficulty in making the singing appear natural. As soon as I began to sing, singing became the main issue. The principle that my bodily movements should appear natural in relation to my intentions was not a success, and the presentation was dull for the audience, even though I felt more mentally alert than I had on previous occasions. I tried not to be over focused on succeeding, and to be aware of avoiding the “singer bubble” phenomenon, but the audience’s attention drew me out, and I responded unconsciously by putting more emphasis on vocal production than I had originally intended.

Working with Stanislavski’s ideas and with Hans Henriksen have not been without effect, and I use the principles increasingly, but preferably in combination with clearly expressed direction or choreography. I see these aspects as something that can be varied continuously on stage.

A body-oriented approach

The more body-oriented the approach was, the easier it was for me. Active movements seemed immediately more inspiring to my psychophysical state than mental processes, and I found memories and associations being aroused quite naturally. But getting attention as a dancer was not difficult. I practiced continually to integrate the  movements in a natural way, believing in both their meaning and their grammar. I also experienced being overweight as a problem, because it stole stage focus. To move the focus to my movements, I ended up reducing my weight by 25 kilos.

My work on movement seemed more inspired, closer to the experience and joy of song. The grammar of physical movement has much in common with musical structures and also relates to vocal techniques. A major obstacle, however, was the experience of energy flow. As a singer, I was used to receiving energy from the ground, up through my legs and body and out from the front of my head. Integrated motion requires a strong energy centre in the abdomen, and energy paths then go from this centre and out to the extremities - or from the periphery and back to the centre.

I also worked with Anne Grete Eriksen, professor of choreography at the Art Academy in Oslo. Her approach was influenced by Rudolf von Laban (1879-1958), Martha Graham (1894-1991) and Merce Cunningham (1919-2009). We worked with various forms of "release work" and did exercises to strengthen my kinesthetic awareness, body memory, posture and the integrating of movements. We also worked with Laban’s "Effort Actions."

Laban’s dichotomies

Contrasting pairs: fast / slow - direct / indirect - heavy / light - free flow / bound flow have many features in common with a musical and vocal understanding of energy patterns. It is a question of balancing the many opposites simultaneously in a single dynamic stream.

Comment: In the process of raising my awareness of this physical work it struck me that the classical music tradition has a strong bias; where legato, clear phrasing and powerful song are usually preferred. When the body moves and unconsciously illustrates these aspects, one’s expression easily becomes theatrical, simplistic and monotonous. These points were consistent with the resource group feedback I received, and were included as an important theme.

Along with Berit Heir Bunkan and Tore Næss Kjerulf I worked with Reich’s vegeto-therapeutic principles, which are about proprioceptive recognition. Work sessions lasted for approximately two hours, and bodily awareness and bodily drive were strengthened while thought processes and logical reasoning played a lesser part. Reich was concerned with basic urges and sexuality, but since I have a natural relationship to the body and sexuality, I mainly used the opportunity to work on my creative and artistic drives. Based on medical checks that we had on a regular basis, we worked with body image, breathing and posture.

Figure 13: ENERGY FIELDS in relation to: 1) normal speech 2) supported singing 3) supported singing and movements

Vocal Techniques

The two years before commencing my fellowship research, I had worked with vocal coach Tor Hommeren, who specializes in the Italian singing technique known as bel canto. The technique is based on the idea that the notes will float on the air flow, and consequently there was a great deal of work on breathing and ways of controlling the abdominal muscles, but also focus on resonance outside the body. Shortly after I had started work on my research, I visited the Swedish voice researcher Johan Sundberg at the Department of Tal (music and hearing) at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm to confront his modern research with this antiquated singing technique. Many themes became much clearer to me after this, and, as a result, some aspects had to be reviewed and re-examined.

After this meeting I was able to work with a much greater degree of precision. It enabled me to find alternative ways of using my body to combine the bel canto technique with some of the aspects of  Sundberg’s theories about acoustics and sound waves. These aspects of the work continued to play an important role throughout the research period.


I also worked with Jan de Miranda, former ballet dancer from the National Ballet and now a master trainer at Gyrotonic, to find more flexible ways of using those muscles that enable us to sing powerfully and continuously. We worked on muscle exercises, mainly aimed at coordinating and integrating the spine, neck and head, as well as strengthening exercises for the abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. We were also keen to discover synergic possibilities regarding posture, movement and abdominal pressure. We isolated various parts of the abdominal muscular system in order to focus on individual muscle groups separately - initially in exercises to familiarize ourselves with their different features and build proprioception - and then in exercises using sounds and singing.

The muscular support structure is based primarily on:
. the right abdominal muscles - between the symphysis, pubis and sternum
. the oblique abdominal muscles - the lower part of the chest and the hips
. the transversus – the girdle around the waist muscles
. the psoas – relating to hip rotation forward
. the multifidus quadratus lumborum - back muscles that keep hip rotation in check
. the pelvic floor muscles - that lift the abdomen from inside and beneath

All these muscle groups interact when there is abdominal pressure, but when I became acquainted with the various features of these processes it was no problem to let some of your muscle groups get the upper hand. By countering a movement with an opposite movement there was an opportunity for a playful interaction of opposing forces instead of static pressure in the abdomen, and this led to completely different sounds, and enabled me to realise quite different timbres and expressions. All hip rotation in a forward direction is countered by the back muscles and the transversus requires active pelvic floor muscles in order to work. All activities involving abdominal pressure are countered by the diaphragm in order to sustain a tone. It is essential that all muscles are exercised, both in terms of direct forcefulness, but also when being released! Gentle exercises – going from tensing to relaxing and back again to being tense - and then relaxing once more, enable one to experience the principle of opposites. When there is rotation then something is going in the opposite direction. When something is being stretched, then something else is being drawn together. To tighten on one side, is to let go on the other, and letting go means activating somewhere else. This is a basic psychophysical principle.


Berit Heir Bunkan sees breath as a catalyst for proprioception, and the sigh – or resignation, which comes at the moment after muscle release, is crucial in order that proprioception be strengthened. It's not about pumping up the muscles, but using muscles accurately and actively. When the posture of the spine is good and the pelvic floor and the diaphragm are active, there will be a natural relaxation of the body, and the larynx and the lower mouth will come down by themselves - and good overtones are a natural bonus, without demanding special attention. Another major advantage is that the posture is not rigid - it can be used in various positions and as a natural part of different movements, and the space about oneself can be used in a completely different way. I have used these principles also when teaching singing techniques, both to professionals and amateurs. A good performance comes significantly faster when singing techniques are based upon proprioception, and my focus on bodily experience during singing led to a realisation that song is a resounding body. The resounding body contains all the six perspectives I have mentioned earlier, and singing itself has its source in our existential being – the subjectivity of here and now - to allow that which is there to flow. This can lead to other tones than those of the ideal classical song  - subjective, natural tones - but as long as the notes float on the air flow, they are still rooted in acoustic song, and consistent with the bel canto technique. Much of this has striking similarities with Roy Hart's approach to song, and I went on a course in Malerargues in Southern France, held by Linda Wise, to study these techniques. The course involved a lot of improvisation - with voice related to movement and intention - and any movement and sound a human can make were welcomed. It was a very liberating experience and I felt a great sense of relief - I was allowed to be myself. But while I have thought intentions, movements and voice are not necessarily needed to illustrate each other – they do lead to a richer stage expression if they are allowed to complement each other. In my work with  "Exercises and Essays" I learned a lot about parallel theatrical expression. Greater artistic freedom is ultimately all about one’s own approach, and this was what I brought with me to the final performance.